Frequently Asked Questions

by | Sep 8, 2015

Nurture Parenting’s Book of Sleep Knowledge

What scientific studies say about newborn sleep

Anders TF. (1979). Night-waking in infants during the first year of life. Pediatrics 63: 860-864.

Bennett C, Underdown A, and Barlow J. (2013). Massage for promoting mental and physical health in typically developing infants under the age of six months. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;4:CD005038. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005038.pub3.

Biddulph, S; (2013). Raising Boys. Fourth Edition, Finch Publishing, Sydney.

Burnham et al (2002). Night-time sleep-wake patterns and self-soothing from birth to one year of age: a longitudinal intervention study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(6): 713-725.

Carpenter, R., McGarvey., C., Mitchell, E.A., et al. Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case–control studies. BMJ Open. Published online May 20 2013.

Cheruku, SR; Montgomery-Downs, HE; Farkas, SL; Thoman, EB; and Lammi-Keefe, CJ; (2002). Higher maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy is associated with more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76:608-13.

Corbeil, M., Trehub, S., Peretz, I. (2015). Singing Delays the Onset of Infant Distress. Infancy

Cubero J, Valero V, Sánchez J, Rivero M, Parvez H, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C. (2005). The circadian rhythm of tryptophan in breast milk affects the rhythms of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and sleep in newborn. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 26(6):657-61.

Cubero J, Narciso D, Terrón P, Rial R, Esteban S, Rivero M, Parvez H, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C. (2007). Chrononutrition applied to formula milks to consolidate infants’ sleep/wake cycle. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 28(4):360-6.

Custodio RJ, Junior CE, Milani SL, Simões AL, de Castro M, Moreira AC. (2007). The emergence of the cortisol circadian rhythm in monozygotic and dizygotic twin infants: the twin-pair synchrony. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 66(2):192-7.

Dement W and Vaughan C. (1999). The promise of sleep. New York: Random House.

Doan T, Gardiner A, Gay CL, Lee KA. (2007) Breast-feeding increases sleep duration of new parents. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 21(3):200-6.

Doan, T., Gardiner, A., Gay, C. L., & Lee, K. A. (2007). Breast‐feeding Increases Sleep Duration of New Parents. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 21(3), 200-206.

Druckerman, P., (2013). French Children Don’t Throw Food. First Edition, Transworld Publishers Ltd.

Faglioli I, Barconcini P, Ricour C, and Salzarulo P. (1998). Decrease of slow-wave sleep in children with prolonged absence of essential lipids intake. Sleep 12: 495-499.

Faraut B, Léger D, Medkour T, Dubois A, Bayon V, Chennaoui M, Perrot S. (2015)a. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction. PLoS One. 10(2):e0117425.

Faraut B, Nakib S, Drogou C, Elbaz M, Sauvet F, De Bandt JP, Léger D. (2015)b. Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 100(3):E416-26.

Ferber SG, Laudon M, Kuint J, Weller A, Zisapel N. 2002. Massage therapy by mothers enhances the adjustment of circadian rhythms to the nocturnal period in full-term infants. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 23(6):410-5.

Field T, Gonzalez G, Diego M, Mindell J. (2016). Mothers massaging their newborns with lotion versus no lotion enhances mothers’ and newborns’ sleep. Infant Behav Dev. 45(Pt A):31-37.

Freudigman KA and Thoman EB. (1998). Infants’ earliest sleep/wake organization differs as a function of delivery mode. Developmental Psychobiology. 32(4):293-303.

Galland BC, Taylor BJ, Elder DE, Herbison P. (2012). Normal sleep patterns in infants and children: A systematic review of observational studies. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(3): 213-222.

Grigg-Damberger, MM.; (2016). The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Infants 0 to 2 Months of Age. Journal Clinical Sleep Medicine. 12(3):429-45.

Hugh, S., Wolter, N, E., Propst, E,J., Gordon, K,A., Cushing, S,L., and Papsin, B,C., (2014). Infant Sleep Machines and Hazardous Sound Pressure Levels. American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 133 No. 4 pp. 677-681 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3617).

Iglowstein I, Jenni OG, Molinari L, Largo RH. (2003). Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: Reference values and generational trends. Pediatrics 111(2): 302-307. Harrison Y. (2004). The relationship between daytime exposure to light and night-time sleep in 6-12-week-old infants. J Sleep Res. 13(4):345-52.

Hayashi M, Motoyoshi N, Hori T. (2005). Recuperative power of a short daytime nap with or without stage 2 sleep. Sleep. 28(7):829-36.

Heraghty JL, Hilliard TN, Henderson AJ, and Fleming PJ. (2008). The physiology of sleep in infants. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Nov;93(11):982-5.

Horne RSC, Parslow PM, Ferens D, Watts AM, and Adamson TM. (2004). Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child 89: 22-25.

Hugelin A. (1982). Mechanisms of respiratory control during sleep and wakefulness: implications in newborn sleep apnoea. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl. 36:625-30.

Jenni OG, DeBoer T, and Acherman P. (2006). Development of the 24h rest-activity pattern in human infants. Infant behavior and development 29: 143-152.

Kang MJ, Matsumoto K, Shinkoda H, Mishima M, Yeo YJ. (2002). Longitudinal study for sleep-wake behaviours of mothers from pre-partum to post-partum using actigraph and sleep logs. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience. 56(3):251-2.

Kato I, Franco P, Grosswasser J, Scaillet S, et al. (2003). Incomplete arousal processes in infants who were victims of sudden death. American Journal Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 168: 1298-1303.

Kennaway DJ, Goble FC and Stamp GE. (1996). Factors influencing the development of melatonin rhythmicity in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 81, 1525-1532.

Korte J, Hoehn T, Siegmund R. (2004). Actigraphic recordings of activity-rest rhythms of neonates born by different delivery modes. Chronobiol Int. 21(1):95-106

Lohr B, Siegmund R. (1999). Ultradian and circadian rhythms of sleep-wake and food-intake behavior during early infancy. Chonobiology international 16(2): 129-148.

Matsuoka M, Segawa M, and Higurashi M. (1991). The Development of Sleep and Wakefulness Cycle in Early Infancy and Its Relationship to Feeding Habit. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 165 (2):147-154.

McNamara F, Lijowska AS, and Thach BT. (2002). Spontaneous arousal activity in infants during NREM and REM sleep. J Physiol 538: 263-269. Middlemiss, W., et al (2011). Asynchrony of mother-infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity following extinction of infant crying responses induced during the transition to sleep. Early Human Development, 63(4), 227-232.

Mindell, J.A., Kuhn, B, Lewin, D.S, Meltzer, L.J, Sadeh, A, [2006]. Behavioral treatment of bedtime problems and night wakings in infants and young children. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review. SLEEP, 1;29(10):1380.

Mirmiran M, Maas YG, Ariagno RL. (2003). Development of fetal and neonatal sleep and circadian rhythms. Sleep Med Rev. 7(4): 321-34.

Murray, L.; The Psychology of Babies (2014). Little Brown.

Nishihara K, Horiuchi S, Eto H, Uchida S. (2000). The development of infants’ circadian rest-activity rhythm and mothers’ rhythm. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 54(3):305-6

Pinilla, T. and Birch, LL. (1993). Help me make it through the night: Behavioral entrainment of breastfed infants’ sleep patterns. Pediatrics 91: 436-444.

Poblano A, Haro R, and Arteaga C. (2007). Neurophysiologic measurement of continuity in the sleep of fetuses during the last week of pregnancy and in newborns. Int J Biol Sci. 4(1):23-8.

Precious Little Sleep, Alexis Dubief. Published Online. First Published: February 12, 2015 Updated: April 25, 2016.

Price, A.M.H., Wake, M, Ukoumunne, O.C, Hiscock, H (2006). Five-Year Follow-up of Harms and Benefits of Behavioral Infant Sleep Intervention: Randomized Trial. Pediatrics, 130(4): 643-651. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3467

Richardson, Heidi. L., Walker, Adrian M., Horne, Rosemary S.C. (2010) Sleeping Like a Baby-Does Gender Influence Infant Arousability? SLEEP, 2010, 33(8):1055-1060.

Quillin SI and Glenn LL. (2004). Interaction between feeding method and co-sleeping on maternal-newborn sleep. J Obstet gynecol Neonatal Nurs 33(5): 580-588.

Rivkees SA, Mayes L, Jacobs H, Gross I. (2004). Rest-activity patterns of premature infants are regulated by cycled lighting. Pediatrics. 113(4):833-9.

Sadeh A, Dark I, and Vohr BR. (1996). Newborns’ sleep-wake patterns: the role of maternal, delivery and infant factors. Early Hum Dev. 44(2):113-26 St James-Roberts (2015). Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics,

Sax, L., (2005). Why Gender Matters. Broadway Books, NY.

Solter, A., (2009). Tears and Tantrums. Fourth printing, Shining Star Press.

Siegel JM. (2005). Functional implications of sleep development. PLoS Biology 3(5): 756-758.

De Tychey, C., Briançon, S, Lighezzolo, J, Spitz, E, Kabuth, B, De Luigi, B, Messembourg, C, Girvan, F, Rosati, A, Thockler, A, St Vincent, S, (2008). Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Volume 17, Issue 3, February 2008, Pages: 312–322.

Thomas KA and Burr R. (2002). Preterm infant temperature circadian rhythm: possible effect of parental cosleeping. Biol Res Nurs. 3(3):150-9.

Torres-Farfan C, Rocco V, Monsó C, Valenzuela FJ, Campino C, Germain A, Torrealba F, Valenzuela GJ, and Seron-Ferre M. (2006). Maternal melatonin effects on clock gene expression in a nonhuman primate fetus. Endocrinology. 147(10):4618-26.

Touchette E, Dionne G, Forget-Dubois N, Petit D, Pérusse D, Falissard B, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, and Montplaisir JY. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on daytime and nighttime sleep duration in early childhood. Pediatrics 131(6):e1874-80.

Tsai SY, Thomas KA, Lentz MJ, Barnard KE. (2012). Light is beneficial for infant circadian entrainment: an actigraphic study. J Adv Nurs. 68(8):1738-47.

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Vandenplas, Y., Brueton, M., Dupont, C., Hill, D., Isolauri, E., Koletzko, S., Oranje, A.P., Staiano, A., (2007). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk protein allergy in infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Volume 92, Pages: 902–908.

Wiessinger, D., West, D., Smith, L.J., Pitman, T., (2014). Sweet Sleep: Nighttime and Naptime Strategies for the Breastfeeding Family, Ballantine Books.

by | Sep 8, 2015

What age of babies and children do you help?

I help newborn babies to 5 years old. I’m a Registered Midwife & Child & Family Health Nurse with a degree in Psychology, so I can quite comfortably navigate pregnancy to childhood.

by | Sep 8, 2015

How do I know which is the right service to help my baby or child?

Choice can come with its own dilemmas…choosing what is right for you. Contact us by email or phone if you need to talk it through. We are more than happy to help and guide you.

by | Sep 8, 2015

Will I get help from Karen?

More often than not – yes you will. If I’m inundated with home consults, then my phone consults and emails are taken care of by Sally – my right-hand woman. Sally is amazing and knows as much as me. We’ve worked together for many years. Meet the rest of our team.

by | Sep 8, 2015

Do you use controlled crying/cry it out?

No, I don’t. I use my own specific methods, very kind and based in attachment psychology. Cuddles are most definitely allowed. Infant mental health is paramount in my sleep support for babies. We can discuss this and make sure you are comfortable before you make your booking. Click here to get in touch.

by | Sep 8, 2015

How do your services differ from sleep school (Karitane & Tresilian etc.)?

There are lots of differences between myself and Karitane/Tresillian.

My methods are my own unique sleep training methods fine-tuned over 19 years of helping parents in their homes with baby and toddler sleep problems. I’m UK trained, a Health Visitor and in the UK I was taught sleep and settling strategies by child psychologists.

I do not do Controlled Crying. My techniques are approved by my many child psychologist clients as well as Dr Howard Chilton and many paediatricians and Drs.

I provide services ranging from Skype to overnight stays in the clients own home and I travel all over NSW, ACT etc. and do Skype and phone consults globally.

I help parents with postnatal help, sleep and feeding issues with newborn/young babies as I’m a Registered Midwife.

And I also help parents with toddler/child sleep problems up until 5 years old.

I’m also trained and qualified in child behaviour strategies.

I provide extensive follow up depending on the service – from email, SMS, phone calls up to 4 weeks from the date of service.

I’m also a provider with many of the private health funds as I’m a Registered Nurse and Midwife.

I am a Community Specialist Practitioner/Health Visiting – I used to be a caseload manager of 350 families in the UK – it is a higher qualification than a Child and Family Health Nurse.

I also have a free blog of over 450 medical blog posts, Facebook Live video’s and 50 YouTube parenting/sleep videos that all my parents can access as well as being a published parenting author.

Click here to get in touch.

by | Sep 8, 2015

I follow up by phone, SMS and email until you’re happy with the results. I think it’s really important to feel supported through the process, until satisfied. Click here to find our about our services.

A Baby Sleep Magic 1-2-3  or Toddler Sleep Magic 1-2-3 (3 hour) home consult includes phone, sms and email support for 2 weeks from the date of your consult. A Baby Sleep Magic or Toddler Sleep Magic (Overnight Stay) includes 4 weeks of phone, sms and email support from the date of your visit. A Phone or Skype consult has the option of 2 emails as follow up.

by | Sep 8, 2015

I will travel anywhere in Australia or around the world to help you. I do travel interstate to help families. Travel of 25KM from Sydney CBD is included in the consultation investment. For longer distances, there may be an extra time and travel cost, contact us to get a full price.

by | Sep 8, 2015

Nurture Parenting is a Provider with several of the Health Funds – Bupa, nib, Australian Unity, CBHE (Commonwealth Bank Health Employees), Teachers Health, ADF, Frank and others. You need to check with your health fund regarding your level of cover. This service is often classed as antenatal, postnatal and lactation services. Karen and her team are registered midwives and nurses and as such can get health rebates from the above health funds for clients.

by | Sep 8, 2015

  • When booking a 2 night overnight consultation the first night will need to be paid at the time of booking to secure the booking.
  • When booking a 3 night consultation, 2 nights need to be paid for at the time of booking to secure the booking.
  • If cancellation occurs less than 48 hours to appointment date only 50% refund is given. If cancellation notice is given more than 48 hours in advance then 100% refund is given.
  • A one night overnight consultation that gets rescheduled, for whatever reason, would need to be paid upfront to rebook and be confirmed.